ThoVT, Vivien T. Thomas Collection in the Alan Mason Chesney Medical Archives of the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions


[Series 2] Vivien Thomas Autobiography
Late in his career, Vivien Thomas began writing a memoir of his time as a surgical technician at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. With the generosity and encouragement of Mark Ravitch, Thomas prepared a document from a perspective of exceptional insight. Thomas was the first black surgical technician at Johns Hopkins at a time of racial segregation and social inequality, and his memoir represents a fascinating account of being both at the forefront of surgical innovation and excluded from certain types of recognition.
Some fifteen years elapsed between the first recorded instance of Thomas’s idea to write a memoir and its eventual publication just before his death in 1986. The series consists of a large volume of drafts, both handwritten and typed, which eventually comprised the manuscript as published by UPenn Press (1st edition 1985, 2nd edition 1998). Between editions, a change of title occurred from "Pioneering Research in Surgical Shock and Cardiovascular Surgery: Vivien Thomas and His Work with Alfred Blalock" to "Partners of the heart: Vivien Thomas and his work with Alfred Blalock." These manuscripts regularly passed between Thomas and Ravitch, with Ravitch frequently providing handwritten edits on each draft at Thomas’ request.
These manuscripts have been ordered into eras of productivity rather than strict drafts. It appears that 1980-1983 was the period of highest productivity, with correspondence between Ravitch and Thomas also increasing during this period as the reality of publication approaches. The typed items were often photocopied numerous times and edited by hand. The most reproduced draft is dated November 1982, noted as 11/1982, which forms the foundation of the final manuscript and after this point undergoes only very cosmetic alterations. Because of the proliferation of photocopied drafts, it is important to remember that drafts labeled 11/1982 might actually reflect the editing processes of a later date. Where possible, this has been indicated by the placement of the manuscripts in different boxes. Because Thomas did not date much of his work, some materials have had to be placed in ‘undated’ and ‘undated handwritten’, but they are largely arranged in chapters. Both published editions of the book share the same chapter order and numbering, but the prologue of the 1985 edition is cut in the 1998 edition. Apart from the title and cover, presence of the prologue is the only difference between the two editions. During his writing process, Thomas includes the prologue as ‘chapter one’, which pushes all the other chapters forward one place. The collection arrangement, however, matches the chapter order to that of the published books. For example, a draft might be labeled by Thomas as ‘chapter ten’, but be titled in the arrangement as ‘chapter nine’.
Thomas was not necessarily the most systematic writer, and alternatives of the same drafts are not necessarily successive nor do they always incorporate recent edits. These alternatives are indicated with ‘a’ and ‘b’, or ‘1’ and ‘2’. Vignettes which did not make it into the manuscript have been indicated, with the most significant omissions being private commentary on Thomas’s lack of invitation to Dr. Alfred Blalock’s retirement party, race relations at Johns Hopkins, and reflections on the meaning of the honorary degree and portrait that are much more complicated than what appears in the published work.
Correspondence with potential publishers and regarding permissions is included in a seperate sub-series following the manuscript drafts.

[Sub-series 2.1] Autobiography Manuscripts

[Folder 3/1] Manuscript: Draft 1i. — June 5, 1980
Initial vignettes comprising first half of the book.

[Folder 3/2] Manuscript: Draft 1ii. — June 5, 1980
Initial vignettes comprising first half of the book.

[Folder 3/3] Manuscript: Draft 1A, Chapters 6-7. — August 22, 1980

[Folder 3/4] Manuscript: Draft 1B, Chapters 6-7. — August 22, 1980
With Mark Ravitch's margin edits.

[Folder 3/5] Manuscript: Draft 2. — c. 1980
Thomas takes Ravitch's edits and incorporates them into a new version... no dates

[Folder 3/6] Manuscript: Draft 3, Chapter 2. — June 5, 1980
Incorporated edits from Mark Ravitch in draft 1

[Folder 3/7] Manuscript: Draft 4, Chapters 6-10. — June 5, 1980

[Folder 3/8] Manuscript: Partial Draft Chapter 6. — August 22, 1980

[Folder 4/1] Draft chapters 6-10 a . — 6/1981
Contains draft chapters 6-10 copy a

[Folder 4/2] Draft chapters 6-10 a with Ravitch edits. — 6/1981
Contains draft chapters 6-10 copy a with edits included by Mark Ravitch

[Folder 4/3] Draft chapters 6-10 a2i. — 6/22/1981
Contains draft chapters 6-10 copy a2i

[Folder 4/4] Draft chapters 6-10 a2i Ravitch edits. — 6/1981
Contains draft chapters 6-10 copy a2i with Mark Ravitch's handwritten edits

[Folder 4/5] Photocopies of images for manuscript Ravitch to Thomas. — 6/1981
Contains photocopies of images for the manuscript Mark Ravtich sent to Vivien Thomas

[Folder 4/6] Draft Chapters 1-5, a1- different handwritten edits. — 12/1981
Contains Draft Chapters 1-5, a1- with different handwritten edits

[Folder 4/7] Draft Chapters 6-10 a1. — 12/1981
Contains Draft Chapters 6-10 copy a1

[Folder 4/8] Draft Chapters 1-5 b . — 12/1981
Contains Draft Chapters 1-5 b

[Folder 4/9] Draft Chapters 6-10 b . — 12/1981
Contains Draft Chapters 6--10 copy b

[Folder 5/1] Draft, MMR to Thomas, Chapter 11. — 1/19/1982
Contains Chapter 11 with Mark Ravitch's comments and revisions.

[Folder 5/2] Draft, 1/1982, Chapter 11. — 1/1982
Contains Chapter 11 with various revisions, contains material not directly related to final draft.

[Folder 5/3] Draft Chapters 1-5. — 3/19/1982
Contains Chapters 1-5

[Folder 5/4] Draft Chapters 1-5 Without Ravitch Edits. — 3/19/1982
Contains Chapters 1-5 without edits of Mark Ravitch

[Folder 5/5] Chapters 1-5. — 3/19/1982
Contains Chapters 1-5

[Folder 5/6] Chapter 6. — 3/1982
Contains Chapter 6

[Folder 5/7] Chapters 6-10. — 3/19/1982
Contains Chapters 6-10

[Folder 5/8] Chapter 6-9 Original. — 3/1982
Contains original chapter 6-9 with edits not incorporated into final manuscript

[Folder 5/9] Chapters 10-13. — 3/1982
Contains Chapters 10-13

[Folder 5/10] Chapters 6-9. — 3/1982
Contains Chapters 6-9 B copy

[Folder 5/11] Chapters 10-13. — 3/1982
Contains Chapters 10-13 a copy

[Folder 6/1] Chapters 10-13. — 3/1982
Contains chapters 10-13 B copy

[Folder 6/2] Chapter 14. — 3/1982
Contains chapter 14- a single page

[Folder 6/3] Chapter 15 a1. — 2/1982
Contains chapter 15- copy without handwritten edits

[Folder 6/4] Chapter 15 a. — 2/1982
Contains chapter 15- copy with handwritten edits

[Folder 6/5] Chapter 17 (2 copies). — 3/1982
Contains two copies of chapter 17

[Folder 6/6] Chapter 14-15 a . — 6/1982
Contains chapters 14-15

[Folder 6/7] Chapter 15-17 a . — 6/1982
Contains chapters 14-15

[Folder 6/8] Chapter 16-17. — 6/1982
Contains chapters 16-17

[Folder 6/9] Draft Chapters 15-17. — 6/1982
Contains chapters 15-17

[Folder 6/10] Draft Chapters 17-20. — 6/1982
Contains chapters 17-20

[Folder 6/11] Copyright Information Requests. — 6/1982
Contains a number of requests from Vivien Thomas to reproduce various materials. Thomas writes to among others: American Medical Association, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Franklin H Martin Memorial Foundation,

[Folder 6/12] Draft Chapters: 17-20 a . — 6/1982
Contains draft chapters 17-20 copy a

[Folder 6/13] Draft Chapters: 17-20 b. — 6/1982
Contains draft chapters 17-20 copy b

[Folder 7/1] Preface- Chapter 4 a. — 8/1982
Contains draft from preface- chapter 4, copy a

[Folder 7/2] Draft Chapters 5-8 a. — 8/1982
Contains draft chapters 5-8 copy a

[Folder 7/3] Draft Chapters 9-11 a. — 8/1982
Contains draft chapters 9-11 copy a

[Folder 7/4] Draft Chapters 11-13 a. — 8/1982
Contains draft chapters 11-13 copy a

[Folder 7/5] Draft Foreward a. — 8/1982
Contains draft of the foreward, copy a

[Folder 7/6] Draft Presentation of a Portrait b. — 8/1982
Contains draft of "Presentation of a Portrait" copy b

[Folder 7/7] Draft: Chapters 1-5 copy b, with Mark Ravitch edits. — 8/1982
Contains draft chapters 1-5 with Mark Ravitch's handwritten edits, copy b.

[Folder 7/8] Draft Chapters 6-9 b. — 8/1982
Contains draft chapters 6-9 copy b

[Folder 7/9] Draft Chapters 10-13 b. — 8/1982
Contains draft chapters 10-13 copy b

[Folder 7/10] Draft Chapters 14-20 b. — 8/1982
Contains draft chapters 14-20 copy b

[Folder 7/11] Draft- Preface. — 8/1982
Contains draft of preface

[Folder 8/1] Draft- Foreward. — 9/1982
Contains typed manuscript preface

[Folder 8/2] Draft- Legends. — 9/1982
Contains draft legends (typed and handwritten)

[Folder 8/3] Draft chapters 14-16. — 9/1982
Contains draft chapters 14-16

[Folder 8/4] Draft chapters 17-18. — 9/1982
Contains draft chapters 17-18

[Folder 8/5] Draft chapter 3. — 10/1982
Contains draft chapter 3

[Folder 8/6] Draft Legends. — 10/1982
Contains draft legends

[Folder 8/7] Draft preface with Thomas and Ravitch handwriting. — 11/1982
Contains draft preface with Thomas and Ravitch handwriting

[Folder 8/8] Draft chapters 3-5 b. — 11/1982
Contains draft chapters 3-5 copy b

[Folder 8/9] Draft chapters 2-6. — 11/1982
Contains draft chapters 2-6

[Folder 8/10] Draft chapters 6-9 b. — 11/1982
Contains draft chapters 6-9 copy b

[Folder 8/11] Draft chapters 10-13 b. — 11/1982
Contains draft chapters 10-13 copy b

[Folder 8/12] Draft chapters 13-19 c. — 11/1982
Contains draft chapters 13-19 copy c

[Folder 8/13] Draft bibliography c . — 11/1982
Contains draft bibliography c

[Folder 9/1] Draft Forward . — 11/1982. — 2 copies
Contains draft forward

[Folder 9/2] Draft Acknowledgements and letter to Madeline . — 11/1982
Contains draft of acknowledgements and letter to Mrs. Madeline as well as various edits.

[Folder 9/3] Draft Acknowledgements with extra notes and legends. — 11/1982
Contains draft of acknowledgements with extra notes and legends

[Folder 9/4] Draft Preface . — 11/1982. — 4 copies
Contains draft Preface including legends

[Folder 9/5] Presentation of a portrait. — 11/1982
Contains draft manuscrict regarding presentation of a portrait

[Folder 9/6] Draft Chapters 1-4. — 11/1982
Contains Draft Chapters 1-4

[Folder 9/7] Draft Chapters 1-5. — 11/1982
Contains Draft Chapters 1-5

[Folder 9/8] Draft Chapters 5-7. — 11/1982
Contains Draft Chapters 5-7

[Folder 9/9] Draft Chapters 8-10. — 11/1982
Contains Draft Chapters 8-10

[Folder 9/10] Draft Chapters 10-13. — 11/1982
Contains Draft Chapters 10-13

[Folder 9/11] Draft Chapters 10-13 (2). — 11/1982
Contains Draft Chapters 10-13 (2)

[Folder 9/12] Draft Chapters 14-17. — 11/1982
Contains Draft Chapters 14-17

[Folder 9/13] Draft Chapters 18-20. — 11/1982
Contains Draft Chapters 18-20

[Folder 9/14] Omitted Material. — 11/1982
Contains Omitted Material

[Folder 10/1] Draft Duplicate 2- Title Page to Chapter 5. — 11/1982
Contains draft duplicate from title page to chapter 5

[Folder 10/2] Draft Duplicate- Chapters 1-5. — 11/1982
Contains draft chapters 1-5

[Folder 10/3] Draft Duplicate 2- Chapters 6-10. — 11/1982
Contains draft chapters 6-10 from duplicate 2

[Folder 10/4] Draft Duplicate 2- Chapters 6-10. — 11/1982
Contains draft chapters 6-10 from duplicate 2

[Folder 10/5] Draft Duplicate 2- Chapters 11-13. — 11/1982
Contains draft chapters 11-13 from duplicate 2

[Folder 11/1] Draft Duplicate 2- Chapters 14-15. — 11/1982
Contains draft chapters 14-15 from duplicate 2

[Folder 11/2] Draft Duplicate 2- Chapters 16-19. — 11/1982
Contains draft chapters 16-19 from duplicate 2

[Folder 11/4] Draft Legends 1. — 11/1982
Contains draft legends 1

[Folder 11/5] Draft Legends 2. — 11/1982
Contains draft legends 2

[Folder 11/6] Draft Legends 3 with edits. — 11/1982
Contains draft legends 3 with handwritten edits

[Folder 11/7] Draft Bibliography. — 11/1982
Contains draft bibliography

[Folder 12/1] Manuscript sent to Cohen, Title page to Chapter 5. — 11/1982
Contains a copy of the manuscript from the title page to chapter 5, sent to HY Cohen Literary Agency

[Folder 12/2] Hy Cohen Draft Chapters 6-9. — 11/1982
Contains a copy of the manuscript from chapters 6-9, sent to HY Cohen Literary Agency

[Folder 12/3] Hy Cohen Draft Chapters 10-14. — 11/1982
Contains a copy of the manuscript from chapters 10-14 sent to HY Cohen Literary Agency

[Folder 12/4] Hy Cohen Draft Chapters 15-19. — 11/1982
Contains a copy of the manuscript from chapters 15-19 sent to HY Cohen Literary Agency

[Folder 12/5] Hy Cohen Draft- Bibliography. — 11/1982
Contains a copy of the bibliography sent to HY Cohen Literary Agency

[Folder 13/1] Draft 3 With Handwritten Edits. — 11/1982
Contains Draft 3 of chapter 11 with handwritten edits

[Folder 13/2] Draft 3 With Handwritten Edits. — 11/1982
Contains Draft 3 of chapter 15 with handwritten edits

[Folder 13/3] Chapter 19 Draft 3 With Handwritten Edits. — 11/1982
Contains Draft 3 of chapter 19 with handwritten edits

[Folder 13/4] Chapter 18-20 Draft 3 . — 11/1982
Contains Draft 3 of chapter 18-20

[Folder 13/5] Chapter 21 Draft 3 . — 11/1982
Contains Draft 3 of chapter 21

[Folder 13/6] Legends Draft 3 . — 11/1982
Contains Legends of Draft 3

[Folder 13/7] Bibliography. — 11/1982
Contains bibliography

[Folder 13/8] Ideas For Title Page- Draft 4. — 11/1982
Contains ideas for title page, draft 4

[Folder 13/9] Dedication Page and Comments- Draft 4. — 11/1982
Contains dedications page and comments, draft 4

[Folder 13/10] Ravitch Foreward- Draft 4. — 11/1982
Contains foreward written by Mark Ravitch draft 4

[Folder 13/11] Prologue- Chapter 4, Draft 4. — 11/1982
Contains prologue- chapter 4, draft 4

[Folder 13/12] Chapters 5-10 Draft 4. — 11/1982
Contains Chapters 5-10, draft 4

[Folder 13/13] Chapters 11-15 Draft 4. — 11/1982
Contains Chapters 11-15, draft 4

[Folder 13/14] Chapters 16-19 Draft 4. — 11/1982
Contains Chapters 16--19, draft 4

[Folder 13/15] Legends Draft 4. — 11/1982
Contains Legends draft 4

[Folder 13/16] Bibliography with Unidentified Edits Draft 4. — 11/1982
Contains bibliography with the edits of perhaps a new editor draft 4

[Folder 14/1 ] Draft Foreward. — 01/1983
Contains draft of foreward written by Mark Ravitch

[Folder 14/2] Draft Acknowledgements. — 01/1983
Contains draft acknowledgements

[Folder 14/3] Draft Preface. — 01/1983
Contains draft preface

[Folder 14/4] Draft Prologue- Chapter 5. — 01/1983
Contains draft prologue through chapter 5

[Folder 14/5] Draft Chapters 6-9. — 01/1983
Contains draft chapters 6-9

[Folder 14/6] Draft Chapters 11-15. — 01/1983
Contains draft chapters 11-15

[Folder 14/7] Draft Chapters 16-19. — 01/1983
Contains draft chapters 16-19

[Folder 14/8] Draft Table 3. — 01/1983
Contains draft of table 3

[Folder 14/9] Draft Bibliography. — 01/1983
Contains draft bibliography

[Folder 14/10] Edited Copy of 11/82 edition. — 05/1985
Contains edited copy with unknown handwriting of 11/82 draft

[Folder 14/11] Handwritten note and comments on manuscript. — circa January 15, 1984
Comment handwritten by Vivien Thomas reflecting on the time it took to write the manuscript, efforts to find a publisher (trade vs academic press), and questions about how race relations at Johns Hopkins were portrayed in the manuscript. Thomas appears to feel that he needed to self censor issues of race relations in order to have the manuscript accepted for publication.

[Folder 15/1] Preface. — Undated
Contains undated handwritten copy of preface

[Folder 15/2] Foreward. — Undated
Contains undated copy of foreward

[Folder 15/3] Acknowledgements. — Undated
Contains undated copy of acknowledgements

[Folder 15/4] Manuscript Chapter 1. — Undated
Contains undated manuscript chapter 1

[Folder 15/5] Manuscript Chapter 2. — Undated
Contains undated manuscript chapter 2

[Folder 15/6] Manuscript Chapter 3. — Undated
Contains undated manuscript chapter 3

[Folder 15/7] Manuscript Chapter 4. — Undated
Contains undated manuscript chapter 4 with the final few paragraphs of chapter 3

[Folder 15/8] Manuscript Chapter 4. — Undated
Contains undated manuscript chapter 4

[Folder 15/9] Manuscript Chapter 5. — Undated
Contains undated manuscript chapter 5

[Folder 15/10] Manuscript Chapter 6. — Undated
Contains undated manuscript chapter 6

[Folder 15/11] Chapter 6 of published book with manuscript of edits. — Undated
Contains undated chapter 6 copy of final book with undated manuscript with Mark Ravitch edits

[Folder 16/1] Manuscript Chapter 7. — Undated
Contains manuscript chapter 7

[Folder 16/2] Manuscript Chapter 8. — Undated
Contains manuscript chapter 8

[Folder 16/3] Manuscript Chapter 9. — Undated
Contains manuscript chapter 9

[Folder 16/4] Manuscript Chapter 10. — Undated
Contains manuscript chapter 10

[Folder 16/5] Manuscript Chapter 11. — Undated
Contains manuscript chapter 11

[Folder 16/6] Manuscript Chapter 12 (130-135). — Undated
Contains manuscript chapter 12, pages 130 to 135

[Folder 16/7] Manuscript Chapter 12 (136-142). — Undated
Contains manuscript chapter 12, pages 136-142

[Folder 16/8] Manuscript Chapter 12 (142-145). — Undated
Contains manuscript chapter 12, pages 142-145

[Folder 16/9] Manuscript Chapter 13. — Undated
Contains manuscript chapter 13

[Folder 17/1] Manuscript Chapter 14. — Undated
Contains manuscript chapter 14

[Folder 17/2] Manuscript Chapter 15. — Undated
Contains manuscript chapter 15

[Folder 17/3] Manuscript Chapter 15 and 16. — Undated
Contains manuscript chapter 15 and 16

[Folder 17/4] Manuscript Chapter 16. — Undated
Contains manuscript chapter 16

[Folder 17/5] Manuscript Chapter 17. — Undated
Contains manuscript chapter 17

[Folder 17/6] Manuscript Chapters 12, 16, 18. — Undated
Contains vignettes from manuscript chapters 12, 16, 18

[Folder 17/7] Manuscript Chapter 19. — Undated
Contains manuscript chapter 17

[Folder 17/8] Manuscript Chapter 20. — Undated
Contains manuscript chapter 20

[Folder 17/9] Omitted Vignette. — Undated
Contains an omitted vignette regarding a Life magazine photographer, that may not have appeared in the final book.

[Folder 17/10] Omitted Reflections. — Undated
Contains an omitted reflection on not being invited to Alfred Blalock's retirement party.

[Folder 17/11] Omitted Material. — Undated
Contains omitted material from the book

[Folder 17/12] Omitted Reflections. — Undated
Contains unpublished reflections on Alfred Blalock

[Folder 18/1] Miscellaneous Vignettes. — Undated
Contains unchaptered vignettes

[Folder 18/2] Miscellaneous Handwritten Vignettes 1. — Undated
Contains handwritten vignettes

[Folder 18/3] Miscellaneous Handwritten Vignettes 2. — Undated
Contains handwritten vignettes

[Folder 18/4] Miscellaneous Handwritten Vignettes 3. — Undated
Contains handwritten vignettes

[Folder 18/5] Miscellaneous Handwritten Vignettes 4. — Undated
Contains handwritten vignettes

[Folder 19/1] Front Page Correspondence. — July, September 1984
Contains corrspondence with Mark Ravitch regarding the first page of the book.

[Folder 19/2] Notes. — Undated
Contains a number of undated notes.

[Folder 19/3] Name Index. — Undated
Contains an un-dated name index for the manuscript

[Folder 19/4] Subject Index. — Undated
Contains an un-dated subject index

[Folder 19/5] Hopkins Medical Staff 1968-1969. — 1968-1969
Contains a list of Hopkins medical staff from the years 1968-1969

[Folder 19/6] Blalock Bibliography. — Undated
Contains a bibliography of Alfred Blalock's work

[Folder 19/7] References and Bibliography. — Undated
Contains references and bibliography

[Folder 19/8] Handwritten Bibliography. — Undated
Contains undated handwritten bibliography

[Folder 19/9] Undated Xeroxes. — Undated
Contains undated xeroxes of reprints related to manuscript

[Folder 19/10] Reprints and Illustrations. — 1952-1954
Contains reprints and illustrations related to the manuscript

[Folder 19/11] Xeroxes- Figures and Illustrations. — Undated
Contains xeroxes of figures and illustrations

[Folder 19/12] Copyright Information and Requests. — 06/1982
Contains copyright information and requests

[Folder 19/13] Copyright Information and Requests. — 1982-1985
Contains copyright information and requests

[Folder 19/14] Legends. — Undated
Contains legends of the manuscript

[Folder 19/15] Legends. — Undated
Contains legends of the manuscript

[Folder 19/16] Legends. — Undated
Contains legends of the manuscript

[Folder 20/1] Legends . — Undated
Contains legends related to manuscript

[Folder 20/2] Legends 2. — Undated
Contains legends related to manuscript

[Folder 20/3] Legends 3. — Undated
Contains legends related to manuscript

[Folder 20/4] Legends 4. — Undated
Contains legends related to manuscript

[Folder 20/5] Legends 5. — Undated
Contains legends related to manuscript

[Folder 20/6] Legends 6. — Undated
Contains legends related to manuscript

[Folder 20/7] Notes On Manuscript. — Undated
Contains notes on manuscript written by unknown individual

[Folder 20/8] Handwritten Notes- Letters (A-Z). — Undated
Contains notes on letters (a-z)

[Folder 20/9] Miscellaneous Manuscript Notes. — Undated
Contains miscellaneous handwritten notes on manuscript

[Folder 20/10] Manuscript Notes. — Undated
Contains notes on manuscript

[Folder 20/11] Title Ideas. — Undated
Contains handwritten ideas for title

[Folder 20/12] Handwritten Notes on Permissions for Copyrights. — Undated
Contains handwritten notes on permissions for copyrights

[Folder 20/13] Blalock Manuscript. — Undated
Contains sections of manuscript involving Alfred Blalock

[Card division 28/24] Subject Index Cards

[Card division 28/25] Names Index Cards

[Sub-series 2.2] Material related to publication of the autobiography

[Folder 21/1] Univeristy of Pennsylvania Press, Correspondence. — 1984-1989
Contains letters between the University of Pennsylvania Press, and the Thomases

[Folder 21/2] University of Pennsylvania Press questionnaire for authors. — December, 1984
Contains a letter from the University of Pennsylvania Press, with a questionnaire for authors.

[Folder 21/3] Correspondence between Ravitch, Thomas and various presses. — 1983-1986
Contains letters between Mark Ravitch, Vivien Thomas and the American Medical Writers Association, Warren H Green Inc., Harvard Univeristy Press, Hy Cohen Literary Agency, Pantheon Books, Joe Hartnett, Johns Hopkins University Press, Random House Publishing, Raven Press, Praeger, Univeristy of Chicago Press, University of Oklahoma Press, Yale University Press