Bibliography - Biological Clocks


Biological Timing Devices

Richter, C. P. A Behavioristic Study of the Activity of the Rat. Comp. Psychol. Monog. 1: 1-55, 1922.

Wang, G.H. The Relation Between "Spontaneous" Activity and Oestrous Cycle in the White Rat. Comp. Psychol. Monog. 2: 1-27, 1923.

Richter, C. P. Animal Behavior and Internal Drives. Quart. Rev. Biol. 2: 307-343, 1927.

Richter, C. P. The Role Played by the Thyroid Gland in the Production of Gross Body Activity. Endocrin. 17: 73-87, 1933.

Richter, C. P. Cyclical Phenomena Produced in Rats by Section of the Pituitary Stalk and Their Possible Relation to Pseudo-pregnancy. Amer. J. Physiol. 106: 80-90, 1933.

Richter, C. P. Cyclic Manifestations in the Sleep Curves of Psychotic Patients. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 31: 149-151, 1934.

Billings, E. G. The Occurrence of Cyclic Variations in Motor Activity in Relation to the Menstrual Cycle in the Human Female. Bull. Johns. Hopk. Hosp. 54: 440-454, 1934.

Richter, C. P. Biological Approach to Manic Depressive Insanity. Proc. Assoc. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 11: 1930.

Levine, M. and Richter, C. P. Periodic Attacks of Gastric Pain Accompanied with Marked Changes in the Electrical Resistance of the Skin. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 33: 1078-1080, 1935.

Richter, C. P. Two-day Cycles of Alternating Good and Bad Behavior in Psychotic Patients. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 39: 587-598, 1938.

Richter, C. P. and Barelare, B., Jr. Persistence of 4- to 5-day Activity Cycles in Vitamin A Deficient Rats with Constant Cornification of the Vaginal Epithelium. Endocrinol. 24: 364-366, 1939.

Richter, C. P. and Honeyman, W., and Hunter, H. Behavior and Mood Cycles Apparently Related to Parathyroid Deficiency. J. Neurol. Psychiat. 3: 19-25, 1940.

Rice, K. K. Regular Forty- to Fifty-day Cycle of Psychotic Behavior in a 14-year old Boy. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 51: 478-480, 1944.

Dieke, S. H. The Effect of Removing Various Endocrine Glands on the Hair Cycles of Black Rats. Endocrin. 42: 315-319, 1948.

Richter, C. P., Jones, G. R. Seegar, and Woods, J. W. Behavior Cycles Produced in Rats by Thyroidectomy, Injection of I131 or by Feeding Sulfamerazine. Mtg. of the Endocrine Society, May 28, 29, and 30, 1953. New York City.

Richter, C. P. Behavior Cycles in Man and Animals. National Academy of Sciences Mtg., April 27, 28, and 29, 1953. Washington, D. C.

Richter, C. P. Experimental Production of Cycles in Behavior and Physiology in Animals. Acta Medi. Scandina. Supplement 307, pg. 36, 1955. (International Society of the Study of Biological Rhythms; Basal, Switzerland; September 1953.)

Richter, C. P. Behavior and Metabolic Cycles in Animals and Man. Proc. 45th Ann. Mtg. of the Amer. Psychopathol. Assoc. Experimental Psychopathology (Hoch and Zubin), Grune and Stratton, New York, 1955.

Richter, C. P. Hormones and Rhythms in Man and Animals. Recent Prog. in Hormone Research 13: 105-159, 1957.

Richter, C. P. Abnormal But Regular Cycles in Behavior and Metabolism in Rats and Catatonic-Schizophrenics. Second International Congress of Psychiatry. Psycho-Endocrine Symposium with Special Reference to Schizophrenia. Zurich, Switzerland, 1957.

Richter, C. P. Abnormal But Regular Cycles in Behavior and Metabolism in Rats and Catatonic-Schizophrenics. Psychoendocrin., pgs. 168-181, 1958. Grune and Stratton, New York. (Max Reiss)

Richter, C. P. Neurological Basis of Responses to Stress. A Ciba Foundation Symposium on the "Neurological Basis of Behaviour, pgs. 204-217, 1958. (In commemoration of Sir Charles Sherrington. Editors G. E. W. Wolstenholme and Cecilia M. O'Connor. Published by J & A. Churchill, Ltd.)

Richter, C. P. Diurnal Cycles in Man and Animals. SCI. 128: 1147-1148, November 7, 1958.

Richter, C. P., Jones, G. S., and Biswanger, L. T. Periodic Phenomena and the Thyroid. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 81: 233-255, 1959.

Richter, C. P. Lasting After-Effects Produced in Rats by Several Commonly Used Drugs and Hormones. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 45: 1080, July 1959.

Richter, C. P. Biological Clocks in Medicine and Psychiatry. Presented December 2, 1959. Thomas William Salmon Lectures at the New York Academy of Medicine, 2 East 103d Street, New York.

Richter, C. P. Biological Clocks in Medicine and Psychiatry: Shock-Phase Hypothesis. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 46: 1506, November 1960.

Richter, C. P. Biological Clocks in Infants and Children. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Pediatrics Society, May 2-3, 1961. Atlantic City, New Jersey.

Richter, C. P. Biological Clocks. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Philosophical Society, April 20-22, 1961. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Richter, C. P. Biological Clocks and the Endocrine Glands. Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Endocrinology, London, England.

Richter, C. P. Behavioral and physiological changes produced in rats by removal of the superior colliculi of the brain. Presented at the National Academy of Sciences autumn meeting; The University of Wisconsin; Madison, Wisconsin. October 12, 13, 14, 1964. Science 146: 429, 1964.

Richter, C. P. Psychopathology of periodic behavior in animals and man. Presented at the 55th annual meeting of the American Psychopathological Association; Park Sheraton Hotel; New York City; February 19, 20, 1965. Reprinted from Comparative Psychopathology. APA, Grune & Stratton, Inc. pp. 205-227, 1967.

Richter, C. P. Sleep and Activity: Their relation to the 24-hour clock. Reprinted from Sleep and Altered States of Consciousness (Assoc. for Research in Nervous and Mental Disorders) Williams and Wilkens; Balto. Md. Vol. 45, 1967.

Richter, C. P. Biological clocks. Presented at the Ciba Foundation Meeting, 41 Portland Place, London, W1, England. In honor of Professor Bernhard Zondek, July 27, 1966.

Richter, C. P. A hitherto unrecognized difference between man and other primates. Presented at the Autumn meeting of the National Academy of Sciences, Durham, N.C., October 17-19, 1966. Reprinted from Sci., October 21, 1966.

Richter, C. P. Biological Clocks in Medicine and Psychiatry. Charles C. Thomas, 1965.

Richter, C. P. Clock mechanism esotropia in children--Alternate day squint. Johns Hopk. Med. J. 122: 218-223, 1968.

Richter, C. P. Inherent twenty-four hour and lunar clocks of a primate--the squirrel monkey. Comm. Behav. Biol., Part A, 1, No.5, 305-332, 1968.

Richter, C. P. Periodic phenomena in man and animals: Their relation to neuroendocrine mechanisms (A monthly or nearly monthly cycle). Endocrinology and Human Behaviour, Ed. Richard P. Michael; Oxford University Press, 1968, London. Presented at the Proceedings of a conference held at the Institute of Psychiatry in London, May 9-11, 1967.

Richter, C. P. Inborn nature of the rat's 24-hour clock. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 61: 1153-1154, 1968.

Richter, C.P. Blood-clock barrier: Its penetration by heavy water. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 66: No. 1, 1970.

Richter, C. P. Dependence of successful mating in rats on functioning of the 24-hour clocks of the male and female. Comm. Behav. Biol., Part A, 5, No.1, 1970.

Richter, C. P. Inborn nature of the rat's 24-hour clock. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 75: 1-4, 1971.

Richter, C. P. Deep hypothermia and its effect on the 24-hour clock of rats and hamsters. Johns Hopk. Med. J. 136: 1-10, 1975.

Richter, C. P. Astronomical references in biological rhythms. The Study of Time II: 39-53, 1975. International Society for the Study of Time, Second World Conference, Lake Yamanaka, Japan, 1973.

Richter, C. P. Artifactual seven-day cycles in spontaneous activity in wild rodents and squirrel monkeys. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 90: 572-582, 1976.
**Data samples from this article are available in ASCII files.

Richter, C. P. Optic nerve sectioning in rats. Brain Res. Bull. 1: 493-494, 1976.

Richter, C. P. A study of taste and smell of heavy water (99.8%) in rats. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. and Med. 152: 677-684, 1976.

Richter, C. P. Permanent series of prolonged pseudopregnancy periods in panhysterectomized rats. Physiol. & Behav. 18: 245-253, 1977.

Richter, C. P. Heavy water as a tool for study of the forces that control length of period of the 24-hour clock of the hamster. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 74: 1295-1299, 1977.

Richter, C. P. Discovery of fire by man--its effects on his 24-hour clock and intellectual and cultural evolution. Johns Hopk. Med. J. 141: 47-61, 1977.

Richter, C. P. Evidence for existence of a yearly clock in surgically and self-blinded chipmunks. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 75: 3517-3531, 1978.

Richter, C. P. 'Dark active' rat transformed into 'light active' rat by destruction of 24-hr clock: Function of 24-hr clock and synchronizers. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75: 6276-6280, 1978.

Richter, C. P. Growth Hormone 3.6-h pulsatile secretion and feeding times have similar periods in rats. Am. J. Physiol. 239: (Endocrinol. Metab. 2): E1-E2, 1980.

Wada, Tomi. An Experimental study of hunger in its relation to activity. Arch. of Psych., 1922, lvii.

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