Series VI:
Papers re Gantt's Scientific Research
    An Overview of Gantt's Research:
    Gantt's research explored the implications of the conditional reflex for the understanding of physiological and behavioral processes. Beginning, as did Pavlov, with the manifestations of the conditional reflex in the digestive system, Gantt expanded his research to include cardiovascular conditioning, sexual behavior, behavioral pharmacology, and the general relationship between environment and internal functions.
    In the 1930s, Gantt began publishing his pioneering research. With collaborators he refined the Pavlovian concept of the conditional reflex, exploring its anatomy and isolating stimulus and response for more precise measurements. During that time he began his observations of the dog Nick, an animal with neuroses deliberately induced in the laboratory. In the course of these observations, Gantt discovered that the heart's conditioning was more rapid and longer-lasting than other conditional reflexes. Further, Gantt noticed that Nick's pathological symptoms increased over time, eventually involving respiratory and sexual responses. Gantt published these observations in 1944, in The Experimental Basis for Neurotic Behavior.
    In the early 1940s, he continued his research on the cardiovascular system. The heart's earlier and more enduring sensitivity to conditioning than other organs was the basis of Gantt's concept of schizokinesis - simply put, that conditional responses were different for each organ system. Gantt also continued developing a second concept, autokinesis, based on his observations that, as in the case of Nick, a conditional response could eventually extend to other organs and a broader pathology even with no further external stimuli. Indeed, this could occur even while attempts were being made to extinguish the pathological response.
    In the 1950s, Gantt's collaborative studies of alcohol and sexual reflexes reflected another evolving interest - the effect of drugs on behavior. Studies of the effect of amphetamines, acetylcholine, and morphine established Gantt's place with America's behavioral pharmacologists.
    While this entire range of investigations continued to the end of his life, one more phenomenon that Gantt had observed in Nick was to occupy much of his later research. For Nick, as with other dogs and humans, the presence of an experimenter was itself a conditional stimulus, affecting the heart rate more dramatically than many drugs. Gantt called this stimulus the "effect of person." Gantt published studies of the phenomenon, and also described the "effect of person" in general essays as the basis of his social philosophy, which stressed the harmony of nature and free will. On the scientific level, he used the concept to explore the distinction between what he now called the "internal universe" of physiological functions, and the "external universe" of the outside environment.
    Most of Gantt's research followed the classic Pavlovian model, with dogs as the primary subjects. However, his concern for possible applications of his research to the well-being of humans led him in the early years to experiment with conditional reflex measurements as a diagnostic tool to differentiate organic and psychosomatic disease, and briefly to explore its potential to extinguish maladaptive behaviors. In the 1940s, his research in behavioral pharmacology included some studies of humans. In the 1950s, Gantt investigated conditional responses in schizophrenics.

Sub-series VI/A:
The American Relief Administration

    Gantt and the ARA:
    Following World War I, the American Relief Administration (ARA) was formed to provide economic and medical assistance to victims of the war. In 1922, Gantt requested a leave of absence from his residency at Baltimore's University Hospital in order to answer the call for physicians to provide medical relief in war-torn Russia. In June of that year, Gantt arrived to assume his post as Chief of the Medical Division, Petrograd.
    Gantt had come to Russia an idealistic young man, still searching for the lifework which would engage his energies. His desire to relieve suffering and his fascination with other cultures were challenged by the health conditions which he encountered in Russia. He had arrived in a ravaged post-Revolutionary Russia, where the horrors of famine and disease strained the dedication of Soviet doctors and scientists. Gantt worked alongside his Soviet colleagues, doctors who themselves were often suffering from malnutrition, to help provide medical care to Soviet citizens.

    Scope and content:
    Gantt's tenure as ARA physician is shown by reports, data, photographs, two watercolors, some correspondence, some printed matter, and some miscellaneous papers of the ARA Association (an ARA alumni group).
    The general correspondence contains a few letters from Russian citizens who write to request relief. These are complemented by a few letters of gratitude. General correspondence also contains letters to and from Russians and Americans with whom Gantt worked.
    Reports emanating from Gantt's official capacity as physician detail medical conditions in Petrograd in 1922. These reports total about 160 pages of data and information. Topics covered include etiology of disease, the medical press, the education and working conditions of physicians, diseases treated in ambulatories, maternal health, the status of various medical specialties, and progress reports of the ARA. Some official printed matter also is present, including an ARA Bulletin for February 1923 (53 pages) devoted to "Russian Famine Relief."
Box 112Records, reports, correspondence concerning the American Relief Administration. — 1923-1967

Sub-series VI/B:
Pavlovian Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University
    Records of the Pavlovian Laboratory at Johns Hopkins are incomplete. However, through correspondence, various administrative records, financial records, and research proposals and reports, a picture emerges of the administrative and financial problems and rewards of directing a behavioral biology research laboratory.
    Correspondence is included with all the Directors of the Phipps Clinic and Deans of the Medical School at Hopkins during Gantt's tenure, and with Joseph Brady who succeeded Gantt as Director of the Pavlovian Laboratory at Johns Hopkins. Personnel files consist primarily of routine notices of employment, but also contain some letters of recommendation. Research proposals and reports are arranged chronologically, and provide an overview of research activities. They are incomplete, however, and the extent to which the research projects overlap both Pavlovian laboratories is unclear. Financial records are sporadic and idiosyncratic, but may provide insight into such matters as the costs of maintaining laboratory animals. In addition, the records of the Hopkins laboratory include papers relating to a lawsuit brought by a disgruntled aspiring researcher.
Folder 113/1-5Correspondence with Adolf Meyer, Director of the Phipps Psychiatric Clinic. — Jan 14 1929-Jun 30 1942
    Gantt's correspondence with Adolf Meyer reflects a long association, beginning in 1929 when Meyer asked Gantt to join the Phipps Psychiatric Clinic with the express purpose of establishing a Pavlovian Laboratory at Johns Hopkins. By 1941, Gantt wrote, on the occasion of Meyer's retirement, "Your teaching was the first beacon that I saw in a field...surrounded by confusion" (May 16, 1941). Correspondence covering these years comprises 74 letters, most concerning personnel and funding for the laboratory. Some deal with research difficulties. For example, in 1931, Gantt informs Meyer that due to a careless animal caretaker "the animals were seen about noon roaming all over the new physiology building...following this week-end spree, there was a marked change in...the conditional reflexes of the animals" (27 April, 1931). Both occasionally write of Pavlov. Returning from Russia in 1933, Gantt informs Meyer, "I discussed with him [Pavlov] your point of view of paranoia" (13 September, 1933).
Folder 113/6-23Correspondence with John C. Whitehorn, Director of the Phipps Psychiatric Clinic. — Jul 31 1934-Oct 4 1973
    Most of the correspondence between Gantt and John C. Whitehorn (ca. 250 letters, 1934-1973) is from Gantt, and limited to formal correspondence about administration and funding of the laboratory. Other topics include Gantt's desire for more involvement with clinic patients, Joseph Wortis' book on Soviet psychiatry, and Gantt's disappointment when Whitehorn asks someone else to deliver the conditional reflex lectures to medical students.
Folder 113/24-28Correspondence with Joel J. Elkes, Director of the Phipps Psychiatric Clinic. — Nov 14 1961-Aug 17 1977
    Correspondence with Joel Elkes (67 letters, 1961-1977) is primarily devoted to hiring and salaries, and notifying Elkes of papers or lectures.
Folder 114/1-4Correspondence with Alan M. Chesney, Dean of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. — Sep 19 1933-May 1 1960
    Correspondence with Alan Mason Chesney (132 items, 1933-1966) is mainly administrative, much of it concerning financial constraints. For example, letters reveal that Gantt dipped into petty cash to pay for janitorial services, to which Chesney responded with a reminder that such forms of payment were incorrect. Gantt also writes of his respect for Chesney, calling him "one of the wisest and fairest administrators with the ability to be helpful without interfering" (June 3, 1953).
Folder 114/5Correspondence with Phillip Bard, Dean of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. — Jun 29 1939-Mar 8 1977
    Correspondence with Philip Bard (55 items, 1939-1977) concerns such matters as plumbing and fire hazards in the laboratory, but after Gantt left Hopkins for Perry Point, he continued to correspond with Bard about professional matters, the Pavlovian Society, and book reviews for Conditional Reflex.
Folder 114/6-9Correspondence with Thomas B. Turner, Dean of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. — Mar 11 1941-Sep 6 1979
    The correspondence between Gantt and Thomas B. Turner (87 items, 1941-1979) coincides with Gantt's retirement. The correspondence reveals Turner's skillful handling of this difficult transition for Gantt, and also reveals Gantt's determination and ability to garner support for his research, and in particular his success in raising money for a Pavlovian Laboratory at the Veterans Administration.
Folder 114/10Correspondence with Joseph V. Brady, Director of the Johns Hopkins Pavlovian Laboratory following Gantt. — Jun 13 1955-Jun 5 1979
    Correspondence with Joseph V. Brady (24 items, 1955-1979). Assuming the directorship of the Laboratory following Gantt's involuntary retirement, Brady assures Gantt, "I want to make it abundantly clear that your presence has always been welcome and appreciated" (20 November, 1968). In several letters Gantt makes suggestions about laboratory policies and research, expresses his approval of Brady's leadership, and enlists his help with the Pavlovian Society and various other professional meetings.
Folder 114/11-15Correspondence of the Pavlovian Laboratory. — Jun 9 1933-Apr 1 1979
Folder 115/1-12Miscellaneous administrative records of the JHH Pavlovian Lab. — 1940-1963
Folder 115/13-14Papers re 25th anniversary meeting of the Pavlovian Laboratory. — 1955
Folder 115/15Agenda for and reports of a 1967 site visit. — 1967
Folder 115/16-23Notes regarding laboratory procedures
Box 116Personnel files, A-N, including applications (filed separately in folder 3)
Folder 117/1-26Personnel files, O-Z
Folder 117/27Office copy of "Epitome of Research Articles from the Pavlovian Laboratory". — 1950
Folder 117/28-33Research program reports and proposals. — 1939-1966
Folder 117/34-46Research proposals by Gantt and collaborators, arranged chronologically. — 1939-1962
Folder 118/1-37Research proposals by Gantt and collaborators. — 1963-1973, n.d.
Folder 119/1-6Financial records - expense account journals (including budgets). — Oct 1937-Oct 1958
Folder 120/1-6Financial records - petty cash journals, arranged chronologically. — 1935-1949
Folder 120/7-12Financial records - statements of account, budget office, arranged chronologically. — 1952-1959
Folder 120/13Financial records - biosatellite experiment cost estimates. — 1965
Folder 120/14Financial records - donations to Pavlovian Laboratory
Folder 121/1-28Financial records - invoices (including supply requisitions and misc. financial records)
Folder 122/1Papers re Jacobs v. JHU - correspondence, application, and research proposals of Priscilla Alden Beach Jacobs. — 1961-1962
Folder 122/2Papers re Jacobs v. JHU - book review of Jones's "Life and Work of Freud" by Priscilla Beach. — 1962
Folder 122/3Papers re Jacobs v. JHU - declaration of suit--Beach vs. Hopkins, Gantt, Bromiley, Peters. — 1963
Folder 122/4-15Papers re Jacobs v. JHU - correspondence and legal documents, arranged chronologically. — Jan 1963-1967
Folder 122/16Papers re Jacobs v. JHU - newspaper clippings
Folder 122/17Papers re Jacobs v. JHU - satire by Gantt: "Erotica Neurotica and Dr. Beach: A Comedy"
Folder 123/1-19Phipps Psychiatric Clinic - schedules, minutes, and memos of staff conferences, arranged chronologically. — 1932-1943
Folder 123/20-21Phipps Psychiatric Clinic - senior staff committee reports. — 1959-1966
Folder 123/22Phipps Psychiatric Clinic - advisory committee report. — 1966
Folder 123/23Phipps Psychiatric Clinic - schedule of special reports from staff members
Folder 124/1-4Phipps Psychiatric Clinic - misc. printed matter, primarily procedure manuals, arranged chronologically. — 1939-1965
Folder 124/5-10Johns Hopkins Hospital flyers and memos

Sub-series VI/C:
Pavlovian Laboratory, Veterans Administration
    Records of the laboratory are incomplete. However, through correspondence, various administrative records, financial records, and research proposals and reports, a picture emerges of the administrative and financial problems and rewards of directing a behavioral biology research laboratory.
    Correspondence with officials at the Veterans Administration covers the entire time span of Gantt's involvement there. Personnel files consist primarily of routine notices of employment, but also contain some letters of recommendation. Research proposals and reports are arranged chronologically, and provide an overview of research activities. They are incomplete, however, and the extent to which the research projects overlap both laboratories is unclear. Financial records are sporadic and idiosyncratic, but may provide insight into such matters as the costs of maintaining laboratory animals. In addition, the records of the Veterans Administration include papers relating to its suspension and investigation of Gantt due to his alleged subversive activities.
Folder 125/1-4Correspondence with Clinton Brown, Chief of Lab. — 1952-1972
    Correspondence with Clinton Brown (58 items, 1952-1972) covers the years when Brown was director of the Psychophysiologic Research Laboratory (later the Pavlovian Laboratory) at the VA, and also the years 1962-1966 while Brown was on the staff at Johns Hopkins Pavlovian Laboratory. Letters are largely routine and touch on hiring and research projects. A letter to Brown in 1972 (Brown left Hopkins in 1966) inquires about his plans and welfare.
Folder 125/5-6Correspondence with William Pare, Chief of Lab. — 1964-1979
    Correspondence with William Pare (35 items, 1964-1979) is mostly about his appointment at the VA Pavlovian Laboratory. A few letters concern disputes about the allocation of research resources.
Folder 125/7-27Correspondence with officials and staff of the VA and lab. — 1937-1979
    General correspondence (1937-1979) with 50 officials of the Veterans Administration and the VA Pavlovian Laboratory, precedes Gantt's staff appointment there and lasts until shortly before his death. Correspondence is with the Central Office in Washington, DC, and with officials at installations throughout the U.S., as well as the staff at Perry Point, Maryland.
Bailer John C.
Brannon E. P.
Birdzell S. H.
Caffey, Eugene
Cahill, Robert
Cameron D. Ewen
Casey Jesse F.
Chappell Erwin S.
Chase John D.
Cummings, Martin
Edwards, Allan
Filer, Richard
Hawkins W. B.
Hays, Marguerite
Hooper H. Elston
Horton Albert M.
Houser, Victor
Kaim, Samuel
Kenney, Howard
Lisman, Gerald
Middleton William S.
Mulin C. S.
Murphree, Odist
Musser Marc J.
Newcomb, Thomas
Newsome R. S.
Peffer, Peter
Reese, William
Reyna Leo J.
Rogers W. D.
Rosenblum M. P.
Ruppen Howard M.
Schotti, John
Sewall Lee G.
Shackleford, Richard
Shields J. M.
Simon W.
Sisk, Charles
Smith, Elizabeth
Southward W. R.
Springer N. Norton
Sterling Harold W.
Toon James A.
Waites, J. Arthur
Welch Victor C.
Whitman James R.
Worley D.
Wilson W. P.
Zink, Linus
Folder 126/1VA architect's drawing of proposed alterations in Bldg. 4 research laboratory. — Jan 25 1957
Folder 126/2VA speech - Plans for Psychological Research. — Dec 1958
Folder 126/3VA lab expansion proposal. — 1965
Folder 126/4VA proposal for establishment of a cardiovascular research center. — n.d
Folder 126/5Script - slide presentation of psychophysiological lab. — 1959
Folder 126/6-7Secretaries' notes and information. — 1964, n.d.
Folder 126/8Lab staff meeting reports. — 1958-1973
Folder 126/9Site visit and open house agenda. — 1970
Folder 126/10Memos regarding building management. — 1958-1979
Folder 126/11Laboratory dog histories (purchase, vaccination, etc.). — n.d.
Folder 126/12Computer programs for the Pavlovian Lab by P. R. Horne. — n.d.
Folder 126/13Forms for the VA psychiatric services diagnostic tests. — n.d.
Folder 126/14-23Personnel files, arranged alphabetically, including applicants not hired and general papers re hiring
Folder 127/1-4Research, annual reports, arranged chronologically
Folder 127/5-7Research procedures, arranged chronologically
Folder 127/8-36Research proposals and progress reports, arranged chronologically. — 1956-1973
Folder 127/37Research committee memos. — 1959-1975
Folder 127/38Research committee minutes and agenda. — 1951-1977
Folder 127/39Research committee research proposals not by Gantt
Folder 127/40Research--animal care subcommittee minutes. — 1975
Folder 127/41Research--annual medical conference, agenda and programs. — 1951-1960
Folder 127/42VA Hospital--agenda for psychiatry, neurology, and clinical psychology meetings. — 1951-1958
Folder 128/1Financial records - organizational chart and salary structure. — 1958
Folder 128/2Financial records - salary projections. — 1971-1972
Folder 128/3Financial records - VA Hospital research budget planning committee. — 1971-1973
Folder 128/4Financial records - VA budgets and requests for funds
Folder 128/5Financial records - VA budget, transfer for funds (form 4564)
Folder 128/6-10Financial records - requisition for supplies and equipment. — 1972
Folder 128/11Financial records - VA budget: consultation, invoices. — 1972
Folder 128/12Financial records - VA invoices. — 1972
Box 129The subversive activities investigation of Gantt
    Historical note:
    Gantt's admiration of Pavlov, and his passionate interest in the exchange of ideas between American and Russian scientists, was interpreted by some as an endorsement of Soviet policies. His association with such groups as the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship raised suspicions in the 1950s. But even as the Council was placed on the House Un-American Activities Committee's list of disloyal organizations, Gantt neglected to have his name removed from the Council letterhead. In 1950, he wrote the Executive Director, Richard Morfod, "I was not aware I was still listed as a member, as I have had no communication with you since the end of the war... My disagreement with your policies makes it necessary that I request you remove my name from the list of sponsors and members" (Sept. 28, 1950). Unfortunately, Gantt neglected to enclose the letter in the envelope he mailed. In 1953, Gantt was suspended from the directorship of the Veterans Administration's Pavlovian Laboratory, and a formal investigation of his alleged communist sympathies began. (A search revealed no records at the Library of Congress to indicate that the investigation extended beyond the VA).

    Scope and content:
    Papers relating to the investigation include correspondence with Eldon Bailey (Director of Security at the Veterans Administration) and with Gantt's lawyer, Frank B. Obee; affidavits by numerous friends and colleagues; and drafts of Gantt's replies to the charges. The correspondence (May 1953-May 1954) reveals the nature of the allegation and the nature of the appeal process, but not the source of the charges. Gantt's reply to the charges states:
    Although I have been a student of Russia and a friend of the Russian people since 1922 until the present, I have not only been against Communism, but I have never allowed the pressure of any authority, either while living in Russia or in this country to influence my presentation of the objective facts concerning Communism and Russia. (Gantt to Bailey, 12/30/53. Box 129/2).
Folder 129/1Security investigation - memo re suspension of Gantt for alleged un-American activities. — Dec 30 1953
Folder 129/2-4Security investigation - correspondence re charges brought against Gantt, arranged alphabetically. — Apr 1953-May 1954
Folder 129/5-8Security investigation - affidavits on Gantt's behalf by friends and associates including Phillip Bard, John Dos Passos, and John Whitehorn, among others, arranged alphabetically. — 1954
Folder 129/9-18Security investigation - drafts of Gantt's refutation of the charges against him in answer to Eldon L. Bailey, Director of Security at the VA; arranged chronologically. — Jan 1 1954-Mar 1954
Folder 129/19Security investigation - articles assembled for Gantt's defense, arranged chronologically. — 1936-1952